Tag Archives: social interaction

Johari Window


Johari Window

The Johari Window, named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. A four paned “window,” as illustrated above, divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants: open, hidden, blind, and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes are like window shades, which can move as an interaction progresses.

In this model, each person is represented by their own window. Let’s describe mine:

1. The “open” quadrant represents things that both I know about myself, and that you know about me. For example, I know my name, and so do you, and if you have explored some of my website, you know some of my interests. The knowledge that the window represents, can include not only factual information, but my feelings, motives, behaviors, wants, needs and desires… indeed, any information describing who I am. When I first meet a new person, the size of the opening of this first quadrant is not very large, since there has been little time to exchange information. As the process of getting to know one another continues, the window shades move down or to the right, placing more information into the open window, as described below.

2. The “blind” quadrant represents things that you know about me, but that I am unaware of. So, for example, we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot. If you now tell me that I have something on my face, then the window shade moves to the right, enlarging the open quadrant’s area. Now, I may also have blindspots with respect to many other much more complex things. For example, perhaps in our ongoing conversation, you may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. You may not say anything, since you may not want to embarrass me, or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps I am being insincere. Then the problem is, how can I get this information out in the open, since it may be affecting the level of trust that is developing between us? How can I learn more about myself? Unfortunately, there is no readily available answer. I may notice a slight hesitation on your part, and perhaps this may lead to a question. But who knows if I will pick this up, or if your answer will be on the mark.

3. The “hidden” quadrant represents things that I know about myself, that you do not know. So for example, I have not told you, nor mentioned anywhere on my website, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is. This information is in my “hidden” quadrant. As soon as I tell you that I love “Ben and Jerry’s Cherry Garcia” flavored ice cream, I am effectively pulling the window shade down, moving the information in my hidden quadrant and enlarging the open quadrant’s area. Again, there are vast amounts of information, virtually my whole life’s story, that has yet to be revealed to you. As we get to know and TRUST other, I will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about myself. This process is called: “Self-disclosure.”

4. The “unknown” quadrant represents things that neither I know about myself, nor you know about me. For example, I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place. Being placed in new situations often reveal new information not previously known to self or others. For example, I learned of the Johari window at a workshop conducted by a Japanese American psychiatrist in the early 1980’s. During this workshop, he created a safe atmosphere of care and trust between the various participants. Usually, I am terrified of speaking in public, but I was surprised to learn that in such an atmosphere, the task need not be so daunting. Prior to this event, I had viewed myself and others had also viewed me as being extremely shy. (The above now reminds me of a funny joke, which I cannot refrain from telling you. It is said that the number one fear that people have is speaking in public. Their number two fear is dying. And the number three fear that people have, is dying while speaking in public.) Thus, a novel situation can trigger new awareness and personal growth. The process of moving previously unknown information into the open quadrant, thus enlarging its area, has been likened to Maslow’s concept of self-actualization.

 

Taken in party from a Bellevue University Blackboard Post – all due credit to Monalisa McGee, Ph.D.

 

Practical Application of Vygotsky


Vygotsky “believed that all human cognition takes place within a matrix of social history, and thus cognition must be considered within this context.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 105)  This is of particular interest to me since I am a high school history teacher by training, so to put it bluntly, I couldn’t agree with Vygotsky more on this point.  The way in which individuals acquire both thought and language is firmly situated within the context of the culture within which they reside.  This means that when we endeavor to help an individual with who, at first glance, may appear to have a “learning disability…” we should take into account the cultural symbolism that the child will likely identify with.  We should make every effort to communicate in terms that the child will understand, and that others will also understand if the child were to imitate the words or actions.  As an example, if we are working with a child that resides in a predominately Spanish speaking neighborhood where Spanish is the language of choice, then we should utilize that language to facilitate learning (even if it is too soon to be verbal).

Furthermore, when constructing interventions that are intended to maximize learning potential for children, we should take Vygotsky’s “zone of proximal development” into consideration in effort to make learning “relevant” for the learner.  “The ZPD is the distance between what tasks children can do independently and their potential competence at those tasks, which can be achieved with adult or peer assistance.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 107)  In more simple terms, learning is social… and we learn how to extend our thought and action by observing people around us in a social context.  In early childhood, this takes form in pretend play… which Vygotsky would assert is absolutely essential for later school success.  We should encourage and facilitate private speech to assist the child in internalizing action with thought, especially during difficult problem solving activities.  In short, during play therapy, have them “talk it out.”  This may be as simple as continually asking “tell me what you’re doing right now.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 111)

 

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Reference

Bergen, D. (2008). Human development: Traditional and contemporary theories. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

 

Major Depression Disorder (MDD)


There are some significant differences between diagnosing a child with MDD and diagnosing an adult.  First and foremost, symptom duration must be at least 1 year (as opposed to 2 for adults).  Secondly, the presentation is likely to be different… with children exhibiting somatic complaints, irritability, and social withdrawal much more often their adult counterparts.  In both cases, one symptom must be depressed or irritable mood and/or inability to experience pleasurable emotions from normally pleasurable life events such as eating or social interaction (anhedonia).

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The likelihood that comorbid conditions will appear increases with the severity of the depression.  (Netherton, Holmes, & Walker, 1999, p. 266)  Often MDD is comorbid with anxiety disorders, ADHD, behavior disorders, eating disorders, and/or substance abuse.  There does appear to be a distinct lack of a “developmental perspective” in the DSM-IV-TR, but that is not exclusive to this particular category or disorder…  I suspect that’s just an effort to remain “atheoretical.”

I am not at all surprised that rates of depressive disorders increase with age, since frequency, duration, and severity of previous episodes seem to be an indicator of risk.  Also, for lack of a better explanation, the longer you live, the more likely you are to have to endure a negative life event.  I was surprised to see that by age 15, females are twice as likely as males to receive a depressive disorder diagnosis.

Theoretically speaking, I came to favor the interpersonal/cognitive/behavioral models of development for depression.  There was a continued lack of a developmental model, however, for all the theories.  On the whole, I got the impression that we were really selling the childhood cohort short due to lack of research (or, perhaps that’s just the Netherton text working, not sure which… will definitely check this out when I get knee deep into the journal reading).

Attachment theory rears its ugly head again, condemning insecure parental attachment as being significant in the etiology of depression related cognitive processes.  (Netherton et al., 1999, p. 269)  The text suggests that this leads to a more depressive perspective on self, world, and future… culminating in a sense of helplessness and hopelessness.  It would appear that depression is a possible marker for RAD?  I would like to see some comorbity rates.

I understand that self assessment has to be a key component for assessment, but I wouldn’t bet the house on those results alone.  I really like the idea of a multi-trait, multi-method, multi-informant approach to increase diagnostic reliability and validity.  I really believe that you need to take a big picture approach to the complete child, accessing cognitive, affective, interpersonal, adaptive, genetic, and environmental effects to be able to diagnose this disorder effectively.  In addition to a full batter of testing and semi-structured interviews, if able we should dig into a medical history and eliminate underlying organic causes… paying special attention to drug history since many anticonvulsants and some antibiotics are associated with depressive symptoms.

Although I will give treatment only cursory coverage, at this early stage I am very much in favor of cognitive restructuring and development of more adaptive cognitions.  Although the text didn’t really address it, I would also take a “top down” approach and see if I couldn’t convert this to a family intervention.  I am increasingly aware that families are systems and that children tend to play a specific role in that system.

Depression is one area where I am a proponent of pharmacological intervention, despite the fact that I have come out against the pharmacological means to the end on some other diagnosis.  It would appear to me that SSRI’s were made specifically for depression, success rates are relatively high, and side effects are minimal.  I’m not sure I could consider TCAs and MAOIs unless SSRI+CBT failed.  ECT is our last resort… but the degree of impairment would have to be pretty serious for me to suggest it.

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Reference

Netherton, S. D., Holmes, D., & Walker, C. E. (1999). Child and adolescent psychological disorders: A comprehensive textbook. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.