Tag Archives: panic disorder

Comparing PTSD and Somatization Disorder


Comparing PTSD and Somatization Disorder shows that there are some similarities in the symptoms but for the most part they are different.  Somatization Disorder has a lot more physical symptoms while PTSD has more symptoms leaning toward emotional.  The symptoms the two disorders have in common are headaches and stomachaches.  In both cases symptoms can be so severe and last so long that it completely disrupts the person’s life.

Do you have medically unexplained physical, or somatic, symptoms?

Somatization disorder can cause a person towards an emotional reaction such as depression or even suicide because they feel so much pain and can never get a diagnosis for it.  The symptoms often lead to substance abuse.  Thereby leaving them to feel hopeless, as if they will never get the help they need.  Somatization disorder has a wide range of physical symptoms.  A person with this disorder will report many different symptoms over a period of time with no real medical explanation.  These symptoms are often pain throughout the body, but not usually all at the same time.  Pain in the form of headaches, stomach ache, joint or muscle pain.  It could also be internal, such as vomiting, or it could come about as a sexual or menstrual problem.  Neurological symptoms are also common, often occurring as problems with balance or vision and even paralysis.

Generally for a patient to be diagnosed they will have experienced a minimum of eight symptoms.  There will be a minimum number of symptoms from a given category.  An example of this is that a patient will experience four or more symptoms from the pain category, two or more symptoms from the gastrointestinal category, one or more symptoms from the sexual symptoms category, and one or more symptoms from the pseudoneurological symptoms.  When a person is showing signs of these symptoms they will be unexplainable and a medical diagnosis is not usually possible.  Generally the person will explain the pain they are having in a fashion that makes it seem as if they are in more pain than you think they should be in, as if they are over exaggerating the symptoms.

Somatization Disorder lasts for a very long time which is one thing this disorder has in common with PTSD.  PTSD symptoms can last anywhere from months to years.   Most PTSD symptoms are different from Somatization Disorder because they come from more of a psychological background than a physical background.  PTSD symptoms are generally geared more towards an emotional aspect, some examples are worry over dying, acting younger than the chronological age, having an impaired memory or obsessiveness.  It seems that PTSD actually transforms a person’s behavior instead of changing them physically.  This is because when traumatic experiences occur, the feelings they experience, such as shock, nervousness or fear continue on for a length of time and gradually get stronger.  The stronger they get the less of a normal life the person is able to lead.

These increased symptoms can include nightmares or night terrors, hypervigilance, panic attacks, hypersensitivity, low self-esteem and shattered self-confidence or a physical or mental paralysis.  There are three categories often used by clinicians in order to type or group people who are diagnosed with PTSD.  The categories used are re-living, avoiding, and increased arousal.  The people in the re-living group are people who suffer from living through the trauma they have been through over and over again.  This can happen through a flashback or a hallucination or just by being reminded even in small ways.  The people in the avoiding group tend to try to stay away from people, places or things that can remind them of the event.  Unfortunately the person can start to isolate themselves and eventually can turn completely inward from detachment.  The people in the increased arousal group lean towards either having difficulty showing their emotions or on the other end of the spectrum showing overly exaggerated emotions.  This group is also the group who has some physical symptoms such as higher blood pressure, muscle tension and nausea.

In conclusion, it has become very apparent to me that while there are some similarities between PTSD and Somatization Disorder, there are a lot more differences.  It has also become very apparent to me that the people who suffer from these disorders are dealing with a lot of pain, and whether it is physical or emotional, this pain can cause the person suffering from it to shut down and disable them from enjoying the life they were meant to lead.

References

Netherton, S.D., Holmes, D., Walker, C.E. (1999). Child and Adolescent Psychological Disorders.   New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Blaney, P.H., Millon, T. (2009). Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology.

New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

(2009, February 9). Anxiety & Panic Disorders Guide. WebMD.com. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/post-traumatic-stress-disorder

(Retrieved 2009, October 5). Somatization Disorder. Intelihealth.com.  http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtPrint/W/8271/25759/187986.html?d=dmtHealthAZ&hide=t&k=base

(Retrieved 2009, October 5). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. AACAP.org

http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/posttraumatic_stress_disorder_ptsd

(Retrieved 2009, October 5). Somatization Disorder. PsychNet-UK.

http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/somatization_disorder.htm

Kinchin, D. (2005). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder The Invisible Injury.

Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 9YS, UK.  Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www.successunlimited.co.uk/books/ptsympt.htm

 

Eating Disorders


“Eating disorders (EDs) are polysymptomatic syndromes, defined by maladaptive attitudes and behaviors around eating, weight, and body image.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 431)  The primary disorders in this category are anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders no otherwise specified (EDNOS).  Examples of EDNOS might include “AN-like” with preoccupations with thinness, normal-weight people purging food without binging or simply binging without purging (Binge Eating Disorder, or BED).  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 432)

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Epidemiological data suggests that EDs occur more often in women than in men (by a factor of roughly 10); although there is some evidence indicating that the gender gap is closing.  Although AN/BN tend to be most prevalent in late adolescence and early adulthood, BED defies the stereotype by manifesting in an older age group (typically around 40 years of age).  There is also little linkage to socioeconomic status, despite the common belief that Eds are disorders of the affluent.  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 433)  This totally astounds me… how can people who are already undernourished give up what sustenance they are offered?

EDs frequently co-occur with mood, anxiety, substance-abuse, personality, and other psychiatric disorders.  There are so many comorbid mood disorders noted in individuals with EDs that it is easier to exclude mood disorder (singular) that is unrelated… bi-polar disorders.  Personally, I believe the single mood disorder that is currently excluded should be considered.  “The disorders are believe to depend on similar family/developmental determinants (e.g., attachment problems or trauma), and both have been thought to have similar neurobiological substrates.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 434)  Social phobias and OCD were among the most prevalent anxiety related comorbid disorders.  Since anxiety disorders often precede ED onset, it has been suggested that an anxious or obsessive-compulsive attitude predisposes an individual to ED development.  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 435)

Not only are PTSD and substance abuse disorders often comorbid with EDs, but they are often comorbid with each other.  “Substance abusers in an eating-disordered population show significantly more Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Personality Disorders.  In addition, comorbid substance abuse was found to predict elevations in Major Depression, Anxiety Disorders, Cluster B personality disorders, as well as greater impulsivity and perfectionism.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 435)

Finally, personality disorders are frequently present in individuals whom suffer from EDs.  Restrictive type EDs seem to be associated with Anxious-Fearful PD diagnosis (anxiousness, orderliness, introversion, preference for sameness and control).  Binge-purge types have a pronounced affinity for the dramatic-erratic PDs including attention/sensation seeking, extroversion, mood lability, and proneness to excitability or impulsivity.  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 435)

EDs are assumed to be multiply determined by complex interactions including constitutional factors, psychological/developmental processes, social factors, and secondary effects in the biological, psychological and social spheres of maladaptive eating practices themselves.  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 443)  All of the above features generally manfest in eating-specific cognitions related to bodily appearance and appetite regulation, body image or weight considerations, and social values that heighten concerns with all of the above.  As a result, it is currently conceived that EDs represent a “tightly woven” expression of causes and symptoms that have an interrelationship between and among each other.

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Reference

Blaney, P. H., & Millon, T. (2009). Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press.