Tag Archives: neurological system

Comparing PTSD and Somatization Disorder


Comparing PTSD and Somatization Disorder shows that there are some similarities in the symptoms but for the most part they are different.  Somatization Disorder has a lot more physical symptoms while PTSD has more symptoms leaning toward emotional.  The symptoms the two disorders have in common are headaches and stomachaches.  In both cases symptoms can be so severe and last so long that it completely disrupts the person’s life.

Do you have medically unexplained physical, or somatic, symptoms?

Somatization disorder can cause a person towards an emotional reaction such as depression or even suicide because they feel so much pain and can never get a diagnosis for it.  The symptoms often lead to substance abuse.  Thereby leaving them to feel hopeless, as if they will never get the help they need.  Somatization disorder has a wide range of physical symptoms.  A person with this disorder will report many different symptoms over a period of time with no real medical explanation.  These symptoms are often pain throughout the body, but not usually all at the same time.  Pain in the form of headaches, stomach ache, joint or muscle pain.  It could also be internal, such as vomiting, or it could come about as a sexual or menstrual problem.  Neurological symptoms are also common, often occurring as problems with balance or vision and even paralysis.

Generally for a patient to be diagnosed they will have experienced a minimum of eight symptoms.  There will be a minimum number of symptoms from a given category.  An example of this is that a patient will experience four or more symptoms from the pain category, two or more symptoms from the gastrointestinal category, one or more symptoms from the sexual symptoms category, and one or more symptoms from the pseudoneurological symptoms.  When a person is showing signs of these symptoms they will be unexplainable and a medical diagnosis is not usually possible.  Generally the person will explain the pain they are having in a fashion that makes it seem as if they are in more pain than you think they should be in, as if they are over exaggerating the symptoms.

Somatization Disorder lasts for a very long time which is one thing this disorder has in common with PTSD.  PTSD symptoms can last anywhere from months to years.   Most PTSD symptoms are different from Somatization Disorder because they come from more of a psychological background than a physical background.  PTSD symptoms are generally geared more towards an emotional aspect, some examples are worry over dying, acting younger than the chronological age, having an impaired memory or obsessiveness.  It seems that PTSD actually transforms a person’s behavior instead of changing them physically.  This is because when traumatic experiences occur, the feelings they experience, such as shock, nervousness or fear continue on for a length of time and gradually get stronger.  The stronger they get the less of a normal life the person is able to lead.

These increased symptoms can include nightmares or night terrors, hypervigilance, panic attacks, hypersensitivity, low self-esteem and shattered self-confidence or a physical or mental paralysis.  There are three categories often used by clinicians in order to type or group people who are diagnosed with PTSD.  The categories used are re-living, avoiding, and increased arousal.  The people in the re-living group are people who suffer from living through the trauma they have been through over and over again.  This can happen through a flashback or a hallucination or just by being reminded even in small ways.  The people in the avoiding group tend to try to stay away from people, places or things that can remind them of the event.  Unfortunately the person can start to isolate themselves and eventually can turn completely inward from detachment.  The people in the increased arousal group lean towards either having difficulty showing their emotions or on the other end of the spectrum showing overly exaggerated emotions.  This group is also the group who has some physical symptoms such as higher blood pressure, muscle tension and nausea.

In conclusion, it has become very apparent to me that while there are some similarities between PTSD and Somatization Disorder, there are a lot more differences.  It has also become very apparent to me that the people who suffer from these disorders are dealing with a lot of pain, and whether it is physical or emotional, this pain can cause the person suffering from it to shut down and disable them from enjoying the life they were meant to lead.

References

Netherton, S.D., Holmes, D., Walker, C.E. (1999). Child and Adolescent Psychological Disorders.   New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Blaney, P.H., Millon, T. (2009). Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology.

New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

(2009, February 9). Anxiety & Panic Disorders Guide. WebMD.com. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/post-traumatic-stress-disorder

(Retrieved 2009, October 5). Somatization Disorder. Intelihealth.com.  http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtPrint/W/8271/25759/187986.html?d=dmtHealthAZ&hide=t&k=base

(Retrieved 2009, October 5). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. AACAP.org

http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/posttraumatic_stress_disorder_ptsd

(Retrieved 2009, October 5). Somatization Disorder. PsychNet-UK.

http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/somatization_disorder.htm

Kinchin, D. (2005). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder The Invisible Injury.

Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 9YS, UK.  Retrieved October 5, 2009, from http://www.successunlimited.co.uk/books/ptsympt.htm

 

Sexual Dysfunctions


Sexual dysfunctions are conditions that impair sexual satisfaction.  This can manifest as reduced desire to initiate or sustain sexual activity, or lack of ability to achieve sexual satisfaction.  Epidemiological data suggests that the prevalence rate for all sexual disorders is approximately 31% for men and 43% for women.  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 399)  That rate is given to fluctuate, however, depending on the definition of what a “dysfunction” actually entails.  The reality, for Blaney & Millon, is that any particular label or operational definition is imperfect and subject to alterative interpretations.  The key consideration for the therapist is that we must been seen as nonjudgmental.

Add to FacebookAdd to DiggAdd to Del.icio.usAdd to StumbleuponAdd to RedditAdd to BlinklistAdd to TwitterAdd to TechnoratiAdd to Yahoo BuzzAdd to Newsvine

I am not overly surprised by the suggestion that Americans have never learned to be comfortable talking about things sexual.  “Even couples who have been together for many years, and experienced physical intimacy hundreds of times, are still often most reluctant to reveal their sexual desires, fears, and concerns to each other.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 400)  This is the 21st Century; it’s perfectly acceptable (even desirable)… this is foreign to me.

“Rewarding sexual activity requires the adequate functioning of at least three organ systems: cardiovascular, hormonal, and neurological.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 401)  These systems can be adversely affected by medications, particularly SSRI Antidepressants.  Virtually any medical condition that affects those systems; including illnesses, treatments, procedures, and changes- could also serve as precipitating factors.  Finally, culture and psychosocial variables weigh in as contributing factors, although “many people with sexual dysfunctions report none of these factors and many with one or more of these risk factors report satisfying and functional sexual lives.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 402)

If a regular partner is a variable, it is preferable to have them present and willing to participate in the process.  “The involvement of the partner of the symptomatic client in treatment is widely believed to play an important (even critical) facilitative role in sex therapy.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 404)  Even if the partner is unwilling or unable to be present for the office visits, partner cooperation and participation (along with sensitivity to partner issues on the part of the therapist) are “good enough” to make reasonable progress.

Knowing what is at stake is a key consideration for therapists to measure or ascertain.  What if they therapy fails?  Will the relationship end or will it continue?  “Having more at stake in treatment (i.e., the continuation of the relationship) can sometimes serve as an important motivator for one or both partners.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 404)  However, this presents negative aspects as well… primarily because it is an outward indication that there is serious dissatisfaction with the relationship.

Sexual pain disorders are another dimension of sexual dysfunctions that are often neglected.  Recurrent or persistent genital pain in a female, typed dyspareunia, often causes marked distress.  Vulvodynia, characterized by chronic vulvar discomfort or pain, is also not uncommon.  The third common complaint is involuntary contractions or spasms of the outer third of the vaginal barrel, called vaginismus.  This condition makes intercourse painful or impossible.

Treatment of sexual pain disorders always begins with a careful and comprehensive gynecological exam.  “Among the many medical treatments that have been used, with at least some success, are the following:  topical creams, oral medications, biofeedback, physical therapy, cognitive behavioral sex therapy, pain management, local anesthetic agents, topical estrogen, electrical stimulation of the vestibular area, and surgery.”  (Blaney & Millon, 2009, p. 422)

Add to FacebookAdd to DiggAdd to Del.icio.usAdd to StumbleuponAdd to RedditAdd to BlinklistAdd to TwitterAdd to TechnoratiAdd to Yahoo BuzzAdd to Newsvine

Reference

Blaney, P. H., & Millon, T. (2009). Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press.