Tag Archives: Carl Jung

Counseling’s Founding Fathers


There are many people who have influenced the therapy and counseling world but there are a few who have been the most influential. Sigmund Freud is probably the most known and influential in therapy. He developed his own ideas on a variety of topics and taught many people about what he learned. While doing this he sparked several peoples’ interest in the psychoanalyst world. When they began forming their own opinions many of them branched off and began their own school of thought. Unfortunately, because Freud had a low tolerance when people disagreed with him, many of the friendships and collaborations ended. Among these broken friendships came several different points of view. The points of view are from Alfred Adler M.D., Karl Abraham, and Carl Jung. Each of these men studied with Freud for a period of years and then decided on a different point of view and the end result was the breakup of the friendship, with the exception of Karl Abraham, who stayed loyal to Freud and continued to view things as Freud had taught.

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Alfred Adler M.D. was born in Vienna, Austria. He had five siblings and his Father was a corn trader. Growing up he contracted many illnesses and physical ailments, he was quite an unhealthy child. There were two different points in his life where he was run over by a car.

When he was old enough for college, his original goal was to become an ophthalmologist, but later switched to neurology. He had many interests that included philosophy and politics. He was extremely interested in socialism where politics were concerned.

Adler became an associate of Freud’s in Vienna and during that time he researched what he coined Individual Psychology and he developed his theory of human behavior which had a lot of impact on various areas within the counseling field, including education, social sciences, psychology, and psychotherapy. Some of Adler’s techniques have been widely used in many different types of therapy, including Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Solution Focused Therapy, Existential Therapy, and Holistic Therapy. He was among the first therapists to use psychotherapy that was focused and solution oriented but at the same time was much shorter in duration and allowed the patient to be as involved in treatment as the therapist. Typically he would limit a client’s sessions to no more than twenty. He didn’t focus on the patient’s past because he didn’t feel that their past could really define them or that it could dictate the person’s present or future. Because of his beliefs, the Alderian theory makes the assumption that if a person is centered in their own present tense, the way that person looks at the future and expects it to come about can affect the way that person remembers their own past. This belief also helps Alderian therapists create treatment plans that are unique to each client’s situation and needs.

In 1911 Adler separated from Freud because he didn’t believe that sex was the root of neurosis as Freud did. Adler instead thought that when a child experienced feelings of helplessness they would have an inferiority complex later in life. Adler’s theory tried to show how positive social interaction could help treat people with an inferiority complex. This was attributed to his beliefs that humans are goal oriented and need social interaction.

Adler opened Vienna’s first child guidance clinic in 1921 and was able to design tools for parents like educational programs because he was so devout when it came to the prevention of mental health illnesses. He believed if the basic relationships between parents and children and teachers and children were positive, then peoples’ quality of life could be made better for the entire society.

Karl Abraham did not start out studying under Sigmund Freud, he started out instead studying with Carl Jung. When he was chief physician in a psychiatric ward during World War I, war neuroses piqued his interest. He went on to become the founder of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute which helped other psychoanalysts work in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.

Abraham’s interests were geared toward the stages of psychosexual development and their relational patterns. His work helped to pave the way for this type of research both in the United States and in Great Britain. He was one of the very first people to study war neuroses although he mainly concentrated on studying dreams as well as myths and symbols.

Abraham’s contributions to psychoanalysis ranged from sexuality and character development to the psychoanalytical interpretation of dreams and symbolism. He showed how sucking and biting as an infant can affect the development of the libido, saying these two activities give infants their first conflicts. His research in psychosis showed that the disturbances in the libido take more of a toll than other disturbances such as the ego, and he used his theories in the research of schizophrenia.

He separated from Carl Jung because their views became different and Abraham began to see Jung’s practices as a hinder, not a help where psychoanalysis was concerned. When he started collaborating with Freud they studied manic depressive illness.

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychologist who was as influential as Sigmund Freud. He was born in Kesswil in Switzerland. His original intent was to study archeology, but the family finances made it impossible because the schools that taught archeology were too far away and made them too expensive to get to. He settled for studying medicine at the University of Basil, this is where he chose psychiatric medicine as his specialty.

When Jung collaborated with Freud they both studied the unconscious and many of Jung’s findings corroborated a lot of Freud’s ideas. After more than six years of researching together, Jung and Freud’s differing views of the nature of libido and religion finally breaks them apart. Jung felt Freud’s views relied too heavily on pointing toward sexuality when human behavior or psychological complexes was being researched.

Jung’s views were based on the thinking that the unconscious has a creative capacity. He felt that the unconscious serves a positive role in the human culture. Jung had many other interests including flying saucers, he believed they were a sort of psychic projection, he also felt these psychic projections were caused by the global hardships during that time. At one point, Jung went to India where he dreamt of things surrounding King Arthur. These dreams were interpreted by Jung as a message that he should be watchful of Western Spirituality. He did study Western Spirituality which led to interests in mystical traditions, esoteric Christianity and alchemy. When he spoke of what he learned about precognition and parapsychology, the response he received was less than desirable, this also helped lead to the termination of Freud and Jung’s relationship.

Jung developed many opinions of his own including one about the conscious and unconscious being united. He said if this were to happen then the person would actually come to realize their own potential. His work has contributed to the realization of personality tests which are used by many organizations today.

Sigmund Freud has often been called the father of psychoanalysis.  He was an Austrian neurologist as well as a psychiatrist and he co-founded the Psychoanalytic School of Psychology.  He started out planning to study law and was a student at the University of Vienna.  It was at this point that he published his first paper called, “the testicals of eels”.  Some people feel it was because of the research associated with this paper that he seemed to have related his work to signs of hidden sexuality.  In this research he was unsuccessful in finding the male genetalia of eels.

Although he is widely known for his theories related to the unconscious mind, they are controversial and many people not only disagree with them, they call them completely false.  Early on he tried to use hypnosis on patients who were diagnosed as hysterical.  This brought about several confessions of seduction or molestation.  When he was told about a molestation occurring where his friend was the victimizer he classified the confessions as false or made up.

He was among the first to choose talk therapy where the patients had the opportunity to work through their problems by talking through them.  This is now cognitive therapy and Freud’s talk therapy is where it started.

Despite all of his success he still came to suffer from some psychosomatic disorders as well as many phobias.  He used these as a chance to analyze himself as he sorted through his dreams and memories as well as noting what he found about how his personality developed over time.  Once he started looking so closely at this part of himself he discovered that he felt a genuine hostility toward his father as well as realizing that he had sexual feelings toward his mother.

Freud researched the unconscious mind for many years, determining dreams to be the road to the unconscious but after developing and redeveloping the different stages of the unconscious he abandoned it for the concept of the Ego, Super-ego and id.  This theory was about how children go through these stages in order to reach sexual maturity.  Their sexuality would be defined by a strong ego and they would delay gratification.  He also believed that all people have a strong desire for incest and that it must be held back in order to be accepted socially.

Freud, when faced with terminal mouth cancer and after more than 30 surgeries requested to have assisted suicide from his doctor and his friend for which he was obliged, he was given a triple dose of morphine every hour throughout the night after which he passed on.

As stated earlier, Freud’s work has always been and still is considered controversial but just as this is true; it is also true that his impact where psychotherapy is concerned has been seen throughout the years.  His theories and research is referenced by many people throughout the profession.

These men have all been connected at some point in their lives when it comes to their work.  Even though they have researched the same things they have each come up with their own opinions and ideas and eventually broke apart because of them.  The work of each person has sent psychotherapy in a different direction and continues still to influence therapy and research happening today.

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References:

Carl Jung. www.newworldencyclopedia.org;

Karl Abraham. www.newworldencyclopedia.org;

Alfred Adler. www.newworldencyclopedia.org;

Sigmund Freud. www.newworldencyclopedia.org;

Why Should Psychotherapists Be Excited About Adler? Carlson, J., Watts, R., Maniacci, M.

Comparing and Contrasting S. Freud with E. Erikson


The course of personality and social-emotional development was permanently altered by writings of both Sigmund Freud and Eric Erikson.  “Although their theories have implications for other developmental areas, their primary focus was on explaining social and emotional developmental states and the personality dimensions that may be formed by experiences encountered in each stage.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 36)  This essay will attempt to highlight some of the strengths, and some of the criticisms of both Freud and Erikson.

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Rarely is the writing of a single individual so influential on a field that he becomes a household name… such is the case with Sigmund Freud.  We need only refer to a Freudian slip (a verbal mistake that expresses the unconscious mind’s feelings) to get clarity on how deep and wide his influence is.  (Bergen, 2008, p. 43)  “Freud was one of the first theorists who thought that the causes of human behavior could be discovered by scientific methods, and he used the methods that were available in his time to investigate the underlying developmental causes of adult mental health issues.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 37)  Adult is a key component of that statement, since Freud is best known for his phases of psychosexual development that begin with the “oral” phase (ages 0-1) and culminate with the “genital” phase (age 12+).  There is some irony that Freud worked almost exclusively with adults, yet the bulk of his theory was concerned with childhood.

Another basic construct that is inseparable from Freud is the concept of defense mechanisms.  Rationalization, repression, displacement, regression, projection, identification, reaction formation, and sublimation are all concepts that were born of and nurtured by Freud and his disciples.  He is credited with differentiating between the conscious, the unconscious, and the preconscious (the area between the two).  Freud not only put “the unconscious” on the map but he operationalized it in a new way—as a dynamic unconscious, laying down the foundation of a science of the unconscious.  (Lothane, 2006)  He is generally recognized as birthing of the concepts of id, ego, and superego.  All of these theories were the metaphorical shoulders on which the giants of psychological thought stand today… Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Anna Freud, Karen Horney, and Melanie Klein are all indebted to the work of S. Freud.  And that influence only takes the metaphorical couch into consideration… Freud’s real legacy lies beyond the couch in the application of psychoanalysis to community problems and social issues.  (Twemlow & Parens, 2006)

As can be expected with any theory or theorist, Freud is not without his critics.  Among the criticism is that his theory does not meet the test of falsifiability, primarily because they are not supported or discounted with empirical evidence.  (Bergen, 2008, p. 42)  Critics levy charges of “circular reasoning,” “predicting backwards,” “denigrating female development” with an overemphasis on male development in the Oedipal phase, and finally as a “dated construct” due to the fact that it was firmly situated in the Victorian society it attempted to describe.  The confusion around Freud and his theoretical constructs is that we appear to be misapplying Freudian concepts at present.  “Psychoanalysts have to decide whether to stay with the original meanings or to choose different and proper terminology to suit their new concepts instead of misapplying the original ones.”  (Fayek, 2002, p. 476)

Eric Erikson, while less known in contemporary layman circles, is no less influential.  “Erikson’s theory draws on many of Freud’s concepts; however, his emphasis is on explaining how healthy personalities develop rather than focusing on unhealthy developmental processes.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 43)

Like Freud, Eriksons work is increasing seen as dated due to ongoing changes in society at large.  For example, “it is certainly the case that adolescents do ‘try on’ many identities, but because of changing social conditions, they may not do that for a longer period of time without it having unhealthy consequences.”  (Bergen, 2008, p. 50)  Erikson’s discussion of the final two periods of life may also need revision dude to the fact that individuals live longer now than they did previously.  (Bergen, 2008, p. 51)

My biggest issue with Erikson is of a more personal nature.  It is generally well known that Erik Erikson had a 4th child who suffered from Down’s syndrome.  This son, who died at the age of 21, was effectively abandoned by him and his wife.  A psychoanalyst who was famous for effectively treating problem children failed to give even the minimum parental care to his own mentally challenged son.  One might question the integrity of an individual who would do such a thing, but the reality is that this experience shaped some of the critical aspects of Erikson’s theory of human development.  (Paranjpe, 2000)

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References

Bergen, D. (2008). Human development: Traditional and contemporary theories. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Fayek, A. (2002). Psychic reality and mental representation: Contemporary misapplications of Freud’s concepts. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 19(3), 475-500. doi: 10.1037/0736-9735.19.3.475

Lothane, Z. (2006). Freud’s legacy–is it still with us?. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23(2), 285-301. doi: 10.1037/0736-9735.23.2.285

Paranjpe, A. C. (2000, Nov). Review of Identity’s architect: A biography of Erik H. Erikson. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 288-289. doi: 10.1037/h0088184

Twemlow, S. W., & Parens, H. (2006). Might Freud’s legacy lie beyond the couch?. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23(2), 430-451. doi: 10.1037/0736-9735.23.2.430

Pick 4 Psychoanalysis Theories! Which do you favor, and why?


My plan is to specialize in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA).  I like the concept of direct and frequent measurement of variables that can me quantitatively or qualitatively measured.  I like the transparency of the ABA discipline.  “Everything about ABA is visible and public, explicit and straightforward… ABA entails no ephemeral, mystical, or metaphysical explanations; there are no hidden treatments; there is no magic.”  (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 18-19)  ABA is committed to resolving real world issues not theoretical quandaries.  It’s sensible, it’s practical, and it’s in demand.  ABA focuses on the behavior that needs improvement, not just any behavior. Good results are measurable, conceptually systematic, and able to be replicated.  Finally, a good theory must possess generality of the in the respect that it lasts over time and it appears in environments other than the one in which it was observed.  ABA relies on operant conditioning with the fundamental assumption being that behavior is a function of its consequences.  I intend to make use of positive and negative reinforcement, token economies, extinction, and stimulus control.  I’m not ready to rule out cognitive processed entirely because I want to keep an open stance, but right now, I am “all in” with ABA (more specifically, Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), role-playing, behavioral observation, guided imagery.  If there’s anything I don’t like about ABA, it’s the measure of control that is required to do it right… I would like to soften that requirement a bit and do observation in a more natural setting… the inpatient clinical environment is too artificial to get good measurements or results that can be generalized.

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I really enjoy reading Carl Jung despite the fact that he has fallen out of favor with many of the movers and shakers in psychology.  Conceptually speaking it is a lot different than ABA, but I see some synergy there that is untapped.  Specifically, I really buy the concept of Enantiodromia.  “This word refers to Heraclitus’ law that everything sooner or later turns into its opposite.”  (Corsini & Wedding, 2011, p. 123)  Please forgive the lack of a citation because it comes from memory… but Carl Jung said “the word happiness would lose its meaning if it were not balanced by sadness.”  It’s a concept I will never forget, so, I’d like to learn more about Carl Jung and Analytical Psychotherapy.  The only part I don’t like about Analytical Psychotherapy that is it’s not as practical as “brief therapy” techniques that are more pragmatic.  Realistically, how often am I going to get the opportunity to go 20 sessions + with someone with EAP and managed care looming around the corner?  Not often, I suppose.  It’s more likely to be the croutons on my metaphorical presentation salad, there’s too much meat and too many vegetarians to serve Analytical Psychotherapy as the main course in 22nd Century counseling.  It’s still an intriguing option nonetheless, one that I will definitely continue to read whether it’s assigned or not… it interests me.

I would have put existential therapy at the top of the list if it were a legitimate “stand alone” school of therapy.  I really enjoy the duality and the conflict involved in relativism.  I like shooting for the moon… talking about the BIG PROBLEMS (Death, The Meaning of Life, etc).  I really like that it is more person centered and holistic, as compared to reductionist (like ABA).  I like the idea of creating meaning for people… love, marriage, family, religion, etc.  (Corsini & Wedding, 2011, p. 340)  I would, however, like to bring it back down to earth, if you will… it’s a bit “out there” sometimes.

My last choice would have to be Cognitive Therapy for no other reason that it is so dominant in the field right now.  It seems to be the tool of choice for most people, I don’t suspect we will have any difficulty finding someone to write on this one.  I like the concept of guided discovery, and I am particularly drawn to cognitive restructuring as it relates to phobias, OCD, and eating disorders.  If I had a problem with cognitive therapy at all, it’s that everyone is doing it… and while I can hardly afford to neglect it, CBT just doesn’t “excite me” like the opportunity to measure behavior.  Mostly a personal preference I suppose.

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References

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Corsini, R. J., & Wedding, D. (2011). Current psychotherapies (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.